Was Hazrat Adam the First Human Being on Earth?
If you read the Qur'an carefully, nowhere does it suggest that Hazrat Adam is the first human on earth. Adam is the first prophet of the series of prophets in this cycle, and the Qur'an says clearly that before God sent Prophets, humankind was one community:
Mankind were one community and Allah sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings. (Qur'an 2:213)
So before the Prophet Adam is sent, humanity must already exist. In 3:33-34, the Qur'an says "God chose Adam" - there must be humanity from whom Adam is "chosen" from.
The first human being on earth is referred to as the “Universal Adam” (al-Adam al-Kull) in Isma'ili esoteric thought. This Adam, however, is different from the Prophet Adam described in Genesis and the Qur’ān.